To what extent is inflicting medical research and testing on animals justifiable
There is currently no global, intergovernmental recognition of the importance of animal welfare legislation. The International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW) has been campaigning for a Universal Declaration for Animal Welfare to adopt by the UN since 2000. Similar to the UDHR, the UDAW would be a non-binding doctrine that recognises the importance of the sentience of animals. The IFAW hopes that, if endorsed by the UN, these principles will encourage member states to ameliorate introduce legislation into their own countries concerning animal protection. The UDAW has since received the support of numerous international animal welfare organisations including the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), the Commonwealth Veterinary Association (CVA) and the Federation of Veterinarians of Europe (FVE).
Recently more and more countries around the world have started to reduce the amount of animals used for testing and research. In June 2014, the China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) ended its mandatory animal testing requirements for cosmetics. In March 2013, the EU banned the sale of all animal-tested cosmetics, although animals are still used in medical research. Internationally, the USA is thought to use the most animals for testing, shorting followed by Japan and China.
The question of whether all women should have access to abortion centres
Between 1950 and 1985, nearly all industrialized countries liberalized their abortion laws.
In 1994 at the Cairo International Conference on Population and Development (ICDP), it was agreed in the ICPD Programme of Action agreed: “In no case should abortion be promoted as a method of family planning. All Governments and relevant intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations are urged to strengthen their commitment to women’s health, to deal with the health impact of unsafe abortion as a major public heath concern and to reduce the recourse to abortion through expanded and improved family planning services. Prevention of unwanted pregnancies must always be given the highest priority and all attempts should be made to eliminate the need for abortion.”
197 countries signed this programme, signalling their commitment to prevent unsafe abortion.
In 2009, the UNFPA State of World Population reported: “About 19 million of the estimated 45 millions induced abortions performed annually are unsafe: nearly 70,000 women die as a result, representing 13% of pregnancy related deaths.”
“ICPD, in a ground-breaking consensus, called for all women to have access to treatment for abortion related complications, post-abortion counselling, education and family planning services, regardless of the legal status of abortion”
In 2011 the UN GA told Member States that they should provide safe and legal abortion services for women. Roughly 25% of the world population live in societies where women who seek abortion are portrayed as criminals and are only allowed abortion in cases of rape, incest or when the mother’s life is at risk.
Northern Asia generally has the most liberal abortion laws. Countries in Africa, Latin America, the Middle East and southern Asia are considered to mainly prohibit abortion altogether.