Economic and Social

The Question of Relocation and Reimbursement of Indigenous Populations:

 

Definition

Indigenous people are those groups especially protected in international or national legislation as having a set of specific rights based on their historical ties to a particular territory, and their cultural or historical distinctiveness from other populations.

The Problem

  • The general problem is in many countries around the world, where indigenous people live it has become impractical to reach them or the land has become more valuable. Many governments are now forcibly removing indigenous people from their traditional land and many would question the right of the government to do this.
  • This problem has been around since the process of colonization first began and the disadvantage of Indigenous populations first became known. There are Indigenous people across the whole world but a particular problem in the U.S.A with the Lakota, Guatemala with the Mayas, in Australia with the Aborigines and the Maori in New Zealand.
  • Indigenous people are particularly important as they often have medicinal and agricultural knowledge of the land that is invaluable however they are often neglected within society and have little political participation as well as having little basic needs.
  • Many indigenous people are either being forcibly evicted form areas they have lived in as it has become impractical for governments to keep funding them or for example near Perth Australia the supplies to those areas have been cut ultimately leaving many of the people with no choice but to leave. Meaning many Indigenous people are left feeling dispossessed.

Key Treaties, Acts and Organizations to look up

  • Resolution 2006/2.
  • The united nations declaration on the rights of indigenous people
  • The United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (UNPFII)
  • Underrepresented Nations and People’s organization

Useful Websites

http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/news/social/protecting-rights-of-indigenous-peoples.html

http://undesadspd.org/indigenouspeoples.aspx

http://www.firstpeoples.org/who-are-indigenous-peoples/the-challenges-we-face

 

 

The Question of the Forcible Eviction of Residents from Slum Neighbourhood:

 

Definitions

Forced Evictions ‘the permanent or temporary removal against their will of individuals, families and communities from the homes and land which they occupy, without the provision of, and access to, appropriate forms of legal or other protection’.

The Problem

Many people from poorer areas of the community are being forcibly removed from their homes, and this affects an estimated 2 million people each year. This often done with little or no warning, and is very difficult for the people to fight as it is often done by the government in the name of development, such as in Nairobi, 10,000 people are at risk of forcible eviction because of the Nairobi River Basin Plan, the evictions are made harder to fight by the lack of information the people are given prior to the events occurring. They often target social minorities and ethnic groups. It violates many different human rights and makes it hard and almost impossible for people to rebuild their lives, with many returning to their place of origin to continue their lives.

There are many reasons people are evicted including; for urban and rural developments, for major international sporting events and even for city beautification. However not all forcible evictions are illegal, such as if an area becomes too hazardous for citizens to safely live in.

Forcible eviction violates many human rights such as;

  • Freedom from cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment
  • The right to property
  • The right to non-interference with privacy, home and family
  • The right to security of person

Key Treaties, Acts and Organizations to look up

  • The international covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) – particularly article 11.1
  • Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination,
  • Amnesty International
  • Survival international

Useful websites

http://www.amnesty.org.uk/sites/default/files/forced_evictions_briefing_2010.pdf

http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/FS25.Rev.1.pdf

http://www.hic-sarp.org/documents/Handbook_on_Forced_Evictions.pdf