Health

The Question of Reducing Child Morality Rates:

Worldwide, more than ten million children die each year before they reach the age of five, almost all of them in developing countries. Most of these deaths could be prevented by clean water, sanitation, good food and health care. In developing countries, as many as one child in ten dies before the age of five. bmun 8 health

As goal 4 of the UN millennium project the target of reducing the number of child mortality rates has declined significantly thanks to help from all over the world and the collaboration of many countries to make this happen. However the numbers are still high especially for babies and it is a problem, which has still a lot more work to be done.

Useful websites:

http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/childhealth.shtml

http://www.unmillenniumproject.org/goals/gti.htm

The Question of Child Obesity:

Obesity in children is becoming an increasingly serious problem all over the world but particularly in western countries and especially the USA and the UK. It is a question in which the World Health Organisation is currently trying to find a solution to, and one we must persist to solve before the problem grows too large and out of hand when it could cause serious health risks and the premature deaths of too many children.

Health risks of childhood obesity:

Child health and obesity:

Obese children are more likely to be ill, be absent from school due to illness, experience health-related limitations and require more medical care than normal weight children.1 Overweight and obese children are also more likely to become obese adults, and have a higher risk of morbidity, disability and premature mortality in adulthood. The table below provides a summary of recent evidence on some of the main obesity-related conditions that can develop during childhood and adolescence.

Health Problem
Asthma
Obstructive Sleep apnoea (OSA)
Cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors
Psychosocial risks / mental health disorders
Musculoskeletal problems

Potential health-related consequences of child and adolescent obesity

For more information please visit: Public Health England

 

 

Facts:

  • Childhood obesity has more than doubled in children and quadrupled in adolescents in the past 30 years.
  • The percentage of children aged 6–11 years in the United States who were obese increased from 7% in 1980 to nearly 18% in 2012. Similarly, the percentage of adolescents aged 12–19 years who were obese increased from 5% to nearly 21% over the same period.
  • In 2012, more than one third of children and adolescents were overweight or obese.
  • Overweight is defined as having excess body weight for a particular height from fat, muscle, bone, water, or a combination of these factors. Obesity is defined as having excess body fat.
  • Overweight and obesity are the result of “caloric imbalance”—too few calories expended for the amount of calories consumed—and are affected by various genetic, behavioral, and environmental factors

Prevention:

  • Healthy lifestyle habits, including healthy eating and physical activity, can lower the risk of becoming obese and developing related diseases.6
  • The dietary and physical activity behaviors of children and adolescents are influenced by many sectors of society, including families, communities, schools, child care settings, medical care providers, faith-based institutions, government agencies, the media, and the food and beverage industries and entertainment industries
  • Schools play a particularly critical role by establishing a safe and supportive environment with policies and practices that support healthy behaviors. Schools also provide opportunities for students to learn about and practice healthy eating and physical activity behaviors.

Stigma and Self-Esteem:

In addition to suffering from poor physical health, overweight and obese children can often be targets of early social discrimination. The psychological stress of social stigmatization can cause low self-esteem which, in turn, can hinder academic and social functioning, and persist into adulthood. While research is still being conducted, there have been some studies showing that obese children are not learning as well as those who are not obese. Further, physical fitness has been shown to be associated with higher achievement.

Solutions:

Education through schools to the children, through hospitals/GPs and other healthcare alerting people that this is a serious problem and what the risks are for yourself. As well as this, education is needed for parents/guardians so that they are aware and can help to tackle the problem.

Helpful Websites:

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11866453/Children-without-gardens-more-likely-to-be-obese.html

https://www.ucsfbenioffchildrens.org/education/health_risks_for_overweight_children/

http://www.cdc.gov/healthyschools/obesity/facts.htm